What is Disk spring and disc spring types
The disc spring, also known as the Belleville spring washer, was invented by the Frenchman Belleville. It is conical and can be used in a single or multiple series or in parallel, with a bearing along the upper and lower outer edges. The axially acting static or dynamic load is compressed and deformed until it is flattened to store energy as a live load. Automatic conversion to the additional compression load required for sealing, if necessary, to reduce the continued tightening requirements for gaskets and fillers.
The disc spring is a special spring that is tapered in the axial direction and bears the load. After the load is deformed, it saves a certain potential energy. When the bolt is loose, the disc spring releases part of the potential energy to maintain the pressure between the flange connections. Claim. The stress distribution of the disc spring is evenly reduced from the inside to the outside, which can achieve the effect of low stroke and high compensation force.
1. High rigidity, strong shock absorption capacity, can withstand large loads with small deformation, suitable for occasions with small axial space requirements.
2. With variable stiffness characteristics, this spring has a wide range of nonlinear characteristics.
3. With the same combination of disc springs, the spring characteristics can be varied over a wide range. The combination of the combination and the superposition may be adopted, or a combination of different thicknesses, different numbers of sheets, and the like may be employed.
4. When superimposed, the greater the number of springs, the greater the load relative to the same deformation.
◆ Short stroke and heavy load
◆ Small space required
◆ Easy to use in combination
◆ Easy to repair and change
◆ High economic and security
◆ Long service life
Disc spring manufacturing material
Disc springs are mostly made of cold-rolled or hot-rolled strip, sheet or forged billet (forging ratio not less than 3). The materials are commonly used in spring steels such as 60S2MA and 50CVA. For thicker than 1.1, high carbon steel can also be used.
For the performance requirements of the disc spring material , it should have high strength limit, yield limit, elastic limit and fatigue limit after heat treatment, and it is required to have high impact toughness, toughness and the highest possible yield ratio. In order to meet the above performance, most of the domestic and international use cold-rolled or hot-rolled high-quality steel strip or steel plate. When the thickness of the disc spring is more than 6 mm, the forged billet is used. The steel grade is mainly medium-carbon low-alloy spring steel (manganese or chrome vanadium spring steel). ) and high quality carbon spring steel.
Because China has high manganese content and less chromium and vanadium, China's disc spring mainly uses 60Si2MnA. Compared with 50Cr2, the hardenability, tempering stability and impact toughness of 50CrVA are better than 60Si2MnA, but 50CrVA is more expensive. For occasions with high fatigue requirements.
Main type of disc spring
(1) Ordinary disc spring , trapezoidal section disc spring, tapered trapezoidal section. Disc springs: Simple in shape and structure, and widely used. It can be used in single, in-line, superimposed or composite disc spring groups, and can withstand static or variable loads. It can be used as a strong buffer and damping spring in heavy machinery and aircraft, artillery and other weapons.
(2) Diaphragm spring: It is mainly used on the clutch of the automobile, and it functions by the separation finger and the disc spring.
(3) Wave washer: It is widely used in mechanical seals, and can be further developed into a spiral wave spring.
(4) Slotted disc springs: usually used in clutches, such as lathes, cars and tractors.
(5) Disc-shaped disc spring: The cross section is a disc-shaped shape, which is deformed after being loaded and becomes a truncated cone shape. The structure is simple, the rigidity is large, and it is used for occasions with special requirements.
(6) Spiral disc spring: With the dual characteristics of disc spring and coil spring, different stiffness requirements can be obtained.
(7) Wave cylindrical spring (wave spring): By using a wave washer to overlap into a cylindrical shape, a large deformation can be obtained.
Combined disc spring
The load carrying capacity and deformation of a single disc spring are limited, and most of the time it is used in groups. With different combinations, a variety of features can be obtained to meet different performance requirements.
When using the disc spring , in order to prevent lateral slippage of the disc reed when it is loaded, the disc spring should have a guiding mandrel or guide sleeve. Since the disc reed is deformed, the inner and outer diameters will change. Springs are manufactured in different ways with different internal and external diameters. Under normal circumstances, there should be a certain gap between the disc and the guide. There should also be lubrication between the disc and the guide, and the surface hardness of the guide should be greater than the disc.
The way and characteristics of the disc spring combination
1 stacking combination spring.
2 pairs of combined springs.
3 composite combination springs.
The butterfly group  enables the spring characteristics to vary over a wide range. In the combination, compounding and superposition, the overlapping method is adopted, and the laminated surface has friction damping, and the shock absorption and energy consumption are more significant. Relative to the same deformation, the more the number of butterflies, the larger the load.
In a large range, disc springs are replacing cylindrical coil springs. Commonly used in heavy machinery (such as presses) and cannons, aircraft and other weapons, as a powerful buffer and damping spring, as a compression spring for automotive and tractor clutches and safety valves, and as an energy storage component for mobile equipment.
Disadvantages: Load deviation is difficult to guarantee.
Disc springs can be classified into three categories according to the shape of the cross section: a common disc spring (having a rectangular cross section), a disc spring with a radial groove, and a trapezoidal disc spring. Ordinary disc springs are divided into two types: a support surface and an unsupported surface; a disc spring with a radial groove is formed on the basis of a common disc spring, and a plurality of evenly distributed grooves are opened in the radial direction, and the groove can be The inner hole is opened in the direction of the outer circle, and can also be opened from the outer circle to the inner hole; the trapezoidal section disc spring can be divided into two types: the inner edge thickness is larger than the outer aid thickness type and the inner edge thickness is smaller than the outer circle thickness type.
Since the deformation amount and load value of the single-plate disc spring often fail to meet the requirements of use, it can be used in groups to form a disc spring assembly (column). Typical combinations are: laminated combination disc springs, composite disc springs and other combined disc springs.
Compared with cylindrical coil springs, disc springs have the following characteristics:
First, the load deformation characteristic curve is nonlinear.
Second, the disc spring is in the form of a thin sheet, which is easy to form an assembly, and can be assembled and replaced by a building block, thereby bringing convenience to maintenance.
Third, the radial grooved disc spring has zero stiffness characteristics. This feature can be used in applications where a range of deformations is required to maintain a substantially constant spring force.
Fourth, the disc spring absorption performance is not lower than the cylindrical coil spring, when the stacking combination is used, due to the friction between the disc springs, there is greater damping, dissipating the impact energy.
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